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Publication Detail
CATHe: Detection of remote homologues for CATH superfamilies using embeddings from protein language models.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
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  • Authors:
    Nallapareddy V, Bordin N, Sillitoe I, Heinzinger M, Littmann M, Waman VP, Sen N, Rost B, Orengo C
  • Publisher:
    Oxford University Press (OUP)
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MOTIVATION: CATH is a protein domain classification resource that exploits an automated workflow of structure and sequence comparison alongside expert manual curation to construct a hierarchical classification of evolutionary and structural relationships. The aim of this study was to develop algorithms for detecting remote homologues missed by state-of-the-art HMM-based approaches. The method developed (CATHe) combines a neural network with sequence representations obtained from protein Language Models. It was assessed using a dataset of remote homologues having less than 20% sequence identity to any domain in the training set. RESULTS: The CATHe models trained on 1773 largest and 50 largest CATH superfamilies had an accuracy of 85.6 ± 0.4%, and 98.2 ± 0.3% respectively. As a further test of the power of CATHe to detect more remote homologues missed by HMMs derived from CATH domains, we used a dataset consisting of protein domains that had annotations in Pfam, but not in CATH. By using highly reliable CATHe predictions (expected error rate <0.5%), we were able to provide CATH annotations for 4.62 million Pfam domains. For a subset of these domains from Homo sapiens, we structurally validated 90.86% of the predictions by comparing their corresponding AlphaFold 2 structures with structures from the CATH superfamilies to which they were assigned. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The code for the developed models can be found on https://github.com/vam-sin/CATHe. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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