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Publication Detail
Electrogenic uptake of sulphur-containing analogues of glutamate and aspartate by Müller cells from the salamander retina.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Bouvier M, Miller BA, Szatkowski M, Attwell D
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    441, 457
  • Journal:
    J Physiol
  • Volume:
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Amino Acids, Sulfur, Animals, Aspartic Acid, Cysteic Acid, Cysteine, Evoked Potentials, Glutamates, Homocysteine, Neurotoxins, Neurotransmitter Agents, Potassium, Retina, Sodium, Urodela
1. The effect of sulphur-containing analogues of glutamate and aspartate on the membrane current of glial cells was studied by whole-cell clamping Müller cells isolated from the salamander retina. 2. L-Cysteic acid (CA), L-cysteinesulphinic acid (CSA), L-homocysteic acid (HCA), L-homocysteinesulphinic acid (HCSA) and S-sulpho-L-cysteine (SC) all evoked an inward membrane current that was large at negative potentials, and was smaller (but did not reverse) at more positive potentials up to +30 mV. 3. Removal of external sodium ions abolished the amino acid-evoked currents. Whole-cell clamping with pipettes containing no potassium led to a rapid suppression of the currents, that did not occur when potassium was included in the pipette. 4. The dependence of the currents on sulphur-containing amino acid concentration obeyed first-order Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The current evoked by co-application of L-glutamate and a sulphur-containing analogue was smaller than the sum of the currents produced by glutamate alone and by the sulphur analogue alone. 5. These data are consistent with the sulphur amino acid-evoked current being caused by uptake on the electrogenic glutamate uptake carrier, which co-transports an excess of Na+ ions into the cell, and counter-transports one K+ ion out of the cell. 6. The apparent Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values for activation of uptake by CA (6 microM) and by CSA (60 microM) are low enough for uptake on the glutamate uptake carrier to be a plausible mechanism for terminating the postulated neurotransmitter action of these agents. However, the apparent Km values for uptake of HCA (2.95 mM), HCSA (1.65 mM) and SC (greater than 1 mM) are much higher than the EC50 (half-maximal effective concentration) concentrations for these agents' activation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) channels. 7. Comparing the concentrations of sulphur amino acids needed to activate NMDA channels with their rate of uptake suggests that their potency for causing excitotoxic damage should follow the sequence HCA greater than SC greater than HCSA greater than Glu greater than CSA greater than Asp greater than CA.
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