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Publication Detail
Fitness Causes Bloat: Simulated Annealing, Hill Climbing and Populations
In many cases programs length’s increase (known as “bloat”, “fluff” and increasing “structural complexity”) during artificial evolution. We show bloat is not specific to genetic programming and suggest it is inherent in search techniques with discrete variable length representations using simple static evaluation functions. We investigate the bloating characteristics of three non-population and one population based search techniques using a novel mutation operator. An artificial ant following the Santa Fe trail problem is solved by simulated annealing, hill climbing, strict hill climbing and population based search using two variants of the the new subtree based mutation operator. As predicted bloat is observed when using unbiased mutation and is absent in simulated annealing and both hill climbers when using the length neutral mutation however bloat occurs with both mutations when using a population. We conclude that there are two causes of bloat.
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