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Publication Detail
Probes containing runs of guanine provide insights into the biophysics and bioinformatics of Affymetrix GeneChips
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    article
  • Authors:
    Langdon WB, Upton GJG, Harrison AP
  • Publication date:
    2009
  • Pagination:
    259, 277
  • Journal:
    Briefings in Bioinformatics
  • Volume:
    10
  • Article number:
    3
  • Notes:
    keywords: Affymetrix Genechips, expression measures, probe correlations, G-quadruplexes size: 19 pages notes: bbp018 8 April 2009. PMID: 19359259
Abstract
The reliable interpretation of Affymetrix GeneChip data is a multi-faceted problem. The interplay between biophysics, bioinformatics and mining of GeneChip surveys is leading to new insights into how best to analyse the data. Many of the molecular processes occurring on the surfaces of GeneChips result from the high surface density of probes. Interactions between neighbouring adjacent probes affect their rate and strength of hybridization to targets. Competing targets may hybridize to the same probe, and targets may partially bind to more than one probe. The formation of these partial hybrids results in a number of probes not reaching thermodynamic equilibrium during hybridization. Moreover, some targets fold up, or cross-hybridize to other targets. Furthermore, probes may fold and can undergo chemical saturation. There are also sequence-dependent differences in the rates of target desorption during the washing stage. Improvements in the mappings between probe sequence and biological databases are leading to more accurate gene expression profiles. Moreover, algorithms that combine the intensities of multiple probes into single measures of expression are increasingly dependent upon models of the hybridization processes occurring on GeneChips. The large repositories of GeneChip data can be searched for systematic effects across many experiments. This data mining has led to the discovery of a family of thousands of probes, which show correlated expression across thousands of GeneChip experiments. These probes contain runs of guanines, suggesting that G-quadruplexes are able to form on GeneChips. We discuss the impact of these structures on the interpretation of data from GeneChip experiments.
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