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Publication Detail
New examples of holococcolith-heterococcolith combination coccospheres and their implications for coccolithophorid biology
Recently discovered coccospheres with combinations of coccoliths normally considered to belong to different taxa are presented here. By analogy with other coccolithophorids especially Coccolithus pelagicus we can hypothesize that these associations probably represent moments of phase change in a complex, possibly haplo-diplontic, life-cycle. Seven of these associations are composed of heterococcoliths with holococcoliths; five of them are presented here for the first time: Helicosphaera carteri with Syracolithus catilliferus, Syracosphaera pulchra with Calyptrosphaera oblonga, Syracosphaera anthos with Periphyllophora mirabilis, Acanthoica quattrospina with holococcolithophorid sp. and Syracosphaera sp. with Corisphaera sp. type A (see Kleijne, A., 1991. Holococcolithophorids from the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Micropaleontol. 17, 1-76); the other two are Coronosphaera mediterranea with Calyptrolithina wettsteinii, found previously by Kamptner (Kamptner, E., 1941. Die Coccolithineen der Sudwestkuste von Istrien. Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Annalen 51, 54-149), and Syracosphaera nana with undescribed holococcoliths, figured previously by Kleijne (1991) as Syracosphaera sp. type A. In addition the association of Neosphaera coccolithomorpha and Ceratolithus cristatus, recently presented by Alcober and Jordan (Alcober, J., Jordan, R.W., 1997. An interesting association between Neosphaera coccolithomorpha and Ceratolithus cristatus (Haptophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. 32, 91-93) is verified by discovery of a further example. A further five combinations of heterococcoliths and holococcoliths are shown, these probably mostly represent life-cycle combinations but the evidence in each case is insufficient to consider these as definite associations although in these collapsed coccospheres the association of different species is less certain. Two examples of holococcolith-holococcolith associations are presented: S. catilliferus with Syracolithus confusus, and Zygosphaera bannockii with Corisphaera sp. type A. These are probably examples of intra-specific variation. A new species, Syracosphaera delicata sp. nov., is described. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
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