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Publication Detail
Preparation of quality inositol pyrophosphates.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Loss O, Azevedo C, Szijgyarto Z, Bosch D, Saiardi A
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    e3027, ?
  • Journal:
    J Vis Exp
  • Issue:
  • Status:
    Published online
  • Country:
    United States
  • PII:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Escherichia coli, Inositol, Inositol Phosphates, Phosphorylation, Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor)
Myo-inositol is present in nature either unmodified or in more complex phosphorylated derivates. Of the latest, the two most abundant in eukaryotic cells are inositol pentakisphosphate (IP(5;)) and inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid or IP(6;)). IP(5;) and IP(6;) are the precursors of inositol pyrophosphate molecules that contain one or more pyrophosphate bonds(1). Phosphorylation of IP(6;) generates diphoshoinositolpentakisphosphate (IP(7;) or PP-IP(5;)) and bisdiphoshoinositoltetrakisphosphate (IP(8;) or (PP)(2;)-IP(4;)). Inositol pyrophosphates have been isolated from all eukaryotic organisms so far studied. In addition, the two distinct classes of enzymes responsible for inositol pyrophosphate synthesis are highly conserved throughout evolution(2-4). The IP(6;) kinases (IP(6;)Ks) posses an enormous catalytic flexibility, converting IP(5;) and IP(6;) to PP-IP(4;) and IP(7;) respectively and subsequently, by using these products as substrates, promote the generation of more complex molecules(5,6). Recently, a second class of pyrophosphate generating enzymes was identified in the form of the yeast protein VIP(1;) (also referred as PP-IP(5;)K), which is able to convert IP(6;) to IP(7;) and IP(8;)(7,8). Inositol pyrophosphates regulate many disparate cellular processes such as insulin secretion(9), telomere length(10,11), chemotaxis(12), vesicular trafficking(13), phosphate homeostasis(14) and HIV-1 gag release(15). Two mechanisms of actions have been proposed for this class of molecules. They can affect cellular function by allosterically interacting with specific proteins like AKT(16). Alternatively, the pyrophosphate group can donate a phosphate to pre-phosphorylated proteins(17). The enormous potential of this research field is hampered by the absence of a commercial source of inositol pyrophosphates, which is preventing many scientists from studying these molecules and this new post-translational modification. The methods currently available to isolate inositol pyrophosphates require sophisticated chromatographic apparatus(18,19). These procedures use acidic conditions that might lead to inositol pyrophosphate degradation(20) and thus to poor recovery. Furthermore, the cumbersome post-column desalting procedures restrict their use to specialized laboratories. In this study we describe an undemanding method for the generation, isolation and purification of the products of the IP(6;)-kinase and PP-IP(5;)-kinases reactions. This method was possible by the ability of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to resolve highly phosphorylated inositol polyphosphates(20). Following IP(6;)K1 and PP-IP(5;)K enzymatic reactions using IP(6;) as the substrate, PAGE was used to separate the generated inositol pyrophosphates that were subsequently eluted in water.
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