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Publication Detail
Glucocerebrosidase deficiency in substantia nigra of parkinson disease brains
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    JOUR
  • Authors:
    Gegg ME, Burke D, Heales SJ, Cooper JM, Hardy J, Wood NW, Schapira AH
  • Publication date:
    09/2012
  • Pagination:
    455, 463
  • Journal:
    Ann.Neurol.
  • Volume:
    72
  • Issue:
    3
  • Keywords:
    Brain, Genetic_disease, Human, Metabolism, Parkinson's_disease, Substantia_nigra
  • Author URL:
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) represent a significant risk factor for developing Parkinson disease (PD). We investigated the enzymatic activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) in PD brains carrying heterozygote GBA mutations (PD+GBA) and sporadic PD brains. METHODS: GCase activity was measured using a fluorescent assay in cerebellum, frontal cortex, putamen, amygdala, and substantia nigra of PD+GBA (n = 9-14) and sporadic PD brains (n = 12-14). Protein expression of GCase and other lysosomal proteins was determined by western blotting. The relation between GCase, alpha-synuclein, and mitochondria function was also investigated in vitro. RESULTS: A significant decrease in GCase activity was observed in all PD+GBA brain areas except the frontal cortex. The greatest deficiency was in the substantia nigra (58% decrease; p < 0.01). GCase activity was also significantly decreased in the substantia nigra (33% decrease; p < 0.05) and cerebellum (24% decrease; p < 0.05) of sporadic PD brains. GCase protein expression was lower in PD+GBA and PD brains, whereas increased C/EBP homologous protein and binding immunoglobulin protein levels indicated that the unfolded protein response was activated. Elevated alpha-synuclein levels or PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 deficiency in cultured cells had a significant effect on GCase protein levels. INTERPRETATION: GCase deficiency in PD brains with GBA mutations is a combination of decreased catalytic activity and reduced protein levels. This is most pronounced in the substantia nigra. Biochemical changes involved in PD pathogenesis affect wild-type GCase protein expression in vitro, and these could be contributing factors to the GCase deficiency observed in sporadic PD brains. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:455-463
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