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Publication Detail
Composition and thermal structure of the lithospheric mantle beneath kimberlite pipes from the Catoca cluster, Angola
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Ashchepkov IV, Rotman AY, Somov SV, Afanasiev VP, Downes H, Logvinova AM, Nossyko S, Shimupi J, Palessky SV, Khmelnikova OS, Vladykin NV
  • Publication date:
    20/03/2012
  • Pagination:
    128, 151
  • Journal:
    Tectonophysics
  • Volume:
    530-531
  • Status:
    Published
  • Print ISSN:
    0040-1951
Abstract
Garnet, clinopyroxene and ilmenite xenocrysts from three Angolan kimberlite pipes belonging to the Catoca cluster (Angola Caquele, Camitongo I and II, and Catoca) from the SW part of the Congo-Kasai craton, reveal similar features which suggest a similarity of mantle structure. PT estimates for pyropes, Cr-diopsides and picroilmenites reveal similar geothermal conditions of ~37-40mW/m 2. This is slightly higher than the values determined for the Catoca pipe. Higher temperature conditions ~45mW/m 2 were determined for low-Cr pyroxenes and omphacites. The similar general mineralogy and suggested mantle lithology, as well as reconstructed layering of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), are similar for Camitongo I-II as well as for Caquele and Catoca pipes. Heating at depths of 7.5-4.5GPa (240-140km) is a general feature of the SCLM beneath the field. The high temperature trend for low-Cr and hybrid pyroxenes from the base of the SCLM up to 30GPa (100km) represents the PT path of the protokimberlite melts. PT conditions for ilmenites mainly correspond to colder conditions of crystallization in wall rocks and the outer parts of magmatic channels.Individual geochemical features of the minerals for each SCLM suggest pervasive metasomatism in lower part of the SCLM. Clinopyroxene trace element patterns from the Caquele pipe reveal a lherzolitic affinity; they are LILE-enriched with Ba peaks due to phlogopite melting, while those from Camitongo I-II show Ta-Nb enrichment and Pb troughs. The ilmenite trends trace the mantle column from deep to shallow mantle, evolving to Fe-ilmenites due to advanced AFC of protokimberlite magma that also produced abundant Fe-rich clinopyroxenes. The rise of calculated fO 2 correlates with the position of protokimberlites. Comparison with the thermal gradient derived from peridotitic inclusions from Catoca cluster is lower than for Lesotho possibly related to the thicker lithospheric roots beneath the Congo-Kasai craton. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
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