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Publication Detail
Mild stress of caffeine increased mtDNA content in skeletal muscle cells: the interplay between Ca2+ transients and nitric oxide.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Ding S, Riddoch-Contreras J, Abramov AY, Qi Z, Duchen MR
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    327, 337
  • Journal:
    J Muscle Res Cell Motil
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Status:
  • Country:
  • Language:
  • Keywords:
    Aminoimidazole Carboxamide, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Butadienes, Caffeine, Calcium Signaling, Cells, Cultured, DNA, Mitochondrial, Enzyme Inhibitors, Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial, Muscle Fibers, Skeletal, Muscle, Skeletal, NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester, Nitric Oxide, Nitriles, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Ribonucleotides, Stress, Physiological, Triazenes
Caffeine increases mitochondrial biogenesis in myotubes by evoking Ca(2+) transients. Nitric oxide (NO) also induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells via upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and PGC-1α. However, the interplay and timing sequence between Ca(2+) transients and NO releases remain unclear. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine-evoked Ca(2+) transients triggered NO production to increase mtDNA in skeletal muscle cells. Ca(2+) transients were recorded with Fura-2 AM and confocal microscopy; mtDNA staining, mitochondrial membrane potential and NO level were determined using fluorescent probes PicoGreen, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and DAF-FM, respectively. In primary cultured myotubes, a subtle and moderate stress of caffeine increased mtDNA exclusively. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA were increased by 1 mM as well as 5 mM caffeine, whereas 10 mM caffeine did not change the fluorescence intensity of PicoGreen and TMRM. NO level in myocytes increased gradually following the first jump of Ca(2+) transients evoked by caffeine (5 mM) till the end of recording, when Fura-2 indicated that Ca(2+) transients recovered partly and even disappeared. Importantly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME) suppressed caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis, whereas NO donor (DETA-NO) increased mtDNA content. These data strongly suggest that caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis is dose-sensitive and dependent on a certain level of stress. Further, an increasing level of NO following Ca(2+) transients is required for caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis. Additionally, Ca(2+) transients, a usual and first response to caffeine, was either suppressed or attenuated by L-NAME, DETA-NO, AICAR and U0126, suggesting an inability to control [Ca(2+)](i) in these treated cells. There may be an important interplay between NO and Ca(2+) transients in intracellular signaling system involving NOS, AMPK and MEK.
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