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Publication Detail
Morphological and hemodynamic assessments of carotid stenosis using quantitative digital subtraction angiography
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Bladin CF, Colchester AC, Hawkes DJ, Seifalian AM, Iqbal N, Hardingham CR
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    1672, 1678
  • Journal:
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
    039-2499 (Print), 9
  • Print ISSN:
  • Keywords:
    analysis, Angiography, Digital Subtraction, Arterial Occlusive Diseases, blood, Blood Pressure, Carotid Arteries, Carotid Stenosis, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted, Hemodynamic Processes, Humans, physiopathology, Pressure, radiography, Research
  • Addresses:
    Department of Neurology, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia. 100355.1702@compuserve.com
  • Notes:
    DA - 19961112
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Digital angiography is the best established tool for assessing atheromatous disease of extracranial blood vessels. Advances in computer technology have now made it possible and practicable to extract quantitative information (length, width, cross-sectional area, and flow velocity) from good-quality clinical angiograms, allowing calculation of volume flow and pressure gradient. The technique of quantitative angiography (QA) is used for assessing coronary artery disease, but to date there has been no clinical application in patients with cerebrovascular disease. SUMMARY OF REPORT: We have developed a computer program for off-line analysis of routine digital subtraction angiographic images. From biplanar images, the program reconstructs the angiogram in three dimensions and performs quantitative analysis of each vessel. From this data, the pressure drop from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis is then calculated. We assessed the clinical applicability of QA in five patients investigated for transient ischemic attack. The carotid artery ipsilateral to the symptomatic hemisphere was occluded in one patient and had minor plaque in another. In the remaining three patients, ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis was measured by QA as producing area reductions of 55%, 72%, and 88% (equivalent to diameter reductions of 33%, 48%, and 65%, respectively). In these patients, the quantitative stenosis pressure gradients were calculated as 1.2, 3.0, and 3.5 mm Hg. respectively. Further calculation showed that each stenosis contributed to 18%, 24%, and 60%, respectively, of the total carotid pressure gradient from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis. These carotid arteries carried 47%, 42%, and 26%, respectively, of the total cerebral flow. The results of quantitative analysis were validated by comparing, within each patient, the differences in pressure gradients between right and left carotid systems of between right and left vertebral arteries (overall mean difference in pressure gradient, 0.6 +/- 0.5 mm Hg: P = NS). Finally, comparison was made of pressure gradients across the circle of Willis between the carotid and vertebrobasilar circulations (mean difference in pressure gradient, 4.1 +/- 5.3 mm Hg; P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative angiography allows determination of the hemodynamic parameters of a vessel or stenosis. It has significant potential, both as a research tool and in routine clinical practice, for the investigation of cerebrovascular disease
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