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Publication Detail
Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates.
Abstract
A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO₃-HA) with ≈5 wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO₃-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO₃-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO₄-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ∼1.1 wt% exists for synthesis of SiO₄-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
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Biomaterials & Tissue Eng
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