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Publication Detail
Mapping of the human visual cortex using image guided transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
  • Authors:
    Fernandez E, Alfaro A, Tormos J, Martinez M, Vilanova H, Walsh V, Pascual-Leone A
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    pp.115, 124
  • Journal:
    Brain Research Protocols
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
  • Print ISSN:
  • Keywords:
    Human, Visual, Visual Cortex
  • Notes:
    Imported via OAI, 15:41:43 19th Jul 2007
We describe a protocol using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to systematically map the visual sensations induced by focal andnon-invasive stimulation of the human occipital cortex. TMS is applied with a figure of eight coil to 28 positions arranged in a 232-cmgrid over the occipital area. A digitizing tablet connected to a PC computer running customized software, and audio and video recordingare used for detailed and accurate data collection and analysis of evoked phosphenes. A frameless image-guided neuronavigational deviceis used to describe the position of the actual sites of the stimulation coils relative to the cortical surface. Our results show that TMS is ableto elicit phosphenes in almost all sighted subjects and in a proportion of blind subjects. Evoked phosphenes are topographically organized.Despite minor inter-individual variations, the mapping results are reproducible and show good congruence among different subjects. Thisprocedure has potential to improve our understanding of physiologic organization and plastic changes in the human visual system and toestablish the degree of remaining functional visual cortex in blind subjects. Such a non-invasive method is critical for selection of suitablesubjects for a cortical visual prosthesis.ï›™ 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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