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Publication Detail
Investigating the cross-cultural validity of DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder: evidence from Finnish and UK samples.
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Mandy W, Charman T, Puura K, Skuse D
  • Publication date:
  • Pagination:
    45, 54
  • Journal:
  • Volume:
  • Issue:
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  • Keywords:
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth Edition, International Classification of Diseases–11th Edition, autism spectrum disorder, confirmatory factor analysis, cross-cultural, Child, Child Development Disorders, Pervasive, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Finland, Humans, Male, Phenotype, United Kingdom
The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond North America and the United Kingdom. We tested the applicability of the DSM-5 model to a sample of Finnish young people with autism spectrum disorder (n = 130) or the broader autism phenotype (n = 110). Confirmatory factor analysis tested the DSM-5 model in Finland and compared the fit of this model between Finnish and UK participants (autism spectrum disorder, n = 488; broader autism phenotype, n = 220). In both countries, autistic symptoms were measured using the Developmental, Diagnostic and Dimensional Interview. Replicating findings from English-speaking samples, the DSM-5 model fitted well in Finnish autism spectrum disorder participants, outperforming a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) model. The DSM-5 model fitted equally well in Finnish and UK autism spectrum disorder samples. Among broader autism phenotype participants, this model fitted well in the United Kingdom but poorly in Finland, suggesting that cross-cultural variability may be greatest for milder autistic characteristics. We encourage researchers with data from other cultures to emulate our methodological approach, to map any cultural variability in the manifestation of autism spectrum disorder and the broader autism phenotype. This would be especially valuable given the ongoing revision of the International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition, the most global of the diagnostic manuals.
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