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Publication Detail
A tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide promotes neovasculogenesis in vitro and ex vivo
Abstract
The formation of new blood vessels has been shown to be fundamental in the repair of many damaged tissues, and we have recently shown that the adult human periodontal ligament contains multipotent stem/progenitor cells that are capable of undergoing vasculogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro and ex vivo. Enamel matrix protein (EMP) is a heterogeneous mixture of mainly amelogenin-derived proteins produced during tooth development and has been reported to be sometimes effective in stimulating these processes, including in clinical regeneration of the periodontal ligament. However, the identity of the specific bioactive component of EMP remains unclear. In the present study we show that, while the high-molecular-weight Fraction A of enamel matrix derivative (a heat-treated form of EMP) is unable to stimulate the vasculogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (HPC) in vitro, the low-molecular-weight Fraction C significantly up-regulates the expression of the endothelial markers VEGFR2, Tie-1, Tie-2, VE-cadherin and vWF and markedly increases the internalization of low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, we also demonstrate, for the first time, that the synthetic homolog of the 45-amino acid tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) present in Fraction C is likely to be responsible for its vasculogenesis-inducing activity. Moreover, the chemically synthesized TRAP peptide is also shown here to be capable of up-regulating the angiogenic differentiation of the HPC, based on its marked stimulation of in vitro cell migration and tubule formation and of blood vessel formation assay in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model ex vivo. This novel peptide, and modified derivatives, might thereby represent a new class of regenerative drug that has the ability to elicit new blood vessel formation and promote wound healing in vivo. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Restorative Dental Sciences
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Biomaterials & Tissue Eng
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