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Publication Detail
Re-thinking the role of motor cortex: context-sensitive motor outputs?
  • Publication Type:
    Journal article
  • Publication Sub Type:
    Journal Article
  • Authors:
    Gandolla M, Ferrante S, Molteni F, Guanziroli E, Frattini T, Martegani A, Ferrigno G, Friston K, Pedrocchi A, Ward NS
  • Publication date:
    01/05/2014
  • Pagination:
    366, 374
  • Journal:
    Neuroimage
  • Volume:
    91
  • Status:
    Published
  • Country:
    United States
  • PII:
    S1053-8119(14)00022-6
  • Language:
    eng
  • Keywords:
    Functional electrical stimulation, Motor cortex, Proprioception, Adult, Biomechanical Phenomena, Efferent Pathways, Electric Stimulation, Female, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Learning, Leg, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Models, Neurological, Motor Cortex, Posture, Proprioception, Somatosensory Cortex, Synapses, Young Adult
Abstract
The standard account of motor control considers descending outputs from primary motor cortex (M1) as motor commands and efference copy. This account has been challenged recently by an alternative formulation in terms of active inference: M1 is considered as part of a sensorimotor hierarchy providing top-down proprioceptive predictions. The key difference between these accounts is that predictions are sensitive to the current proprioceptive context, whereas efference copy is not. Using functional electric stimulation to experimentally manipulate proprioception during voluntary movement in healthy human subjects, we assessed the evidence for context sensitive output from M1. Dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging responses showed that FES altered proprioception increased the influence of M1 on primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results disambiguate competing accounts of motor control, provide some insight into the synaptic mechanisms of sensory attenuation and may speak to potential mechanisms of action of FES in promoting motor learning in neurorehabilitation.
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